ATZ Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift 103(3):216–224, Nozaki H (1985) The effects on steering system rigidity on vehicle cornering characteristics in power-assisted steering systems. (Frömming et al. 2009). 4 Demands on Vehicle Behavior 2 Lateral Dynamics (Driving Stability) 2.1 Demands on Vehicle Behavior Like at all vehicles which are not track-bound, the driver of the motor vehicle has to manage not only the control respectively the regulation of driving speed, but also driving direction. The height of the centre of gravity must be ignored, because the centrifugal force is acting there, hence, it does not apply any additional load to the outer tyre or discharge to the inner tyre, i.e. Other cars implement rather small values. This paper presents a comparison of a linear and a nonlinear observer for the vehicle and tyre side-slip angles. Alternatively, for users familiar with Simulink, two template applications are available for running the models of the package in Simulink. it impacts the hazard of under- or over-steer. The self-steering gradient is usually unsteady, hence the real non-linear characteristic speed will deviate from the characteristic speed of linear theory. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. First, there is the quasi-steady increase of the steering-wheel torque over the steering-wheel angle, the steering stiffness . Maneuver with sinusoidal steering angle input. (TU Delft Dynamics of Micro and Nano Systems), Holweg, E.G.M. Ideal values of modern cars are less than 0.1 to 0.15 s at 80 km/h. This section presents a series of studies with the successful use of the package. The complex model applies an ESF friction element according to Pfeffer et al. We use essential cookies to perform essential website functions, e.g. to Mitschke and Wallentowitz (, $$ F(s) = \frac{steering\;wheel\;torque\;(s)}{steering\;wheel\;angle\;(s)} = \left( J Eng Ind 88:283–295, Simon M, Frantzen M, Gerhards T, David W, Jagt PVD (2009) Front wheel drive with 300 PS—Is it Possible? Ingenieur Archiv, vol 11, Heft 3, 6.1940, pp 210–224, Segel L (1966) On the lateral stability and control of the automobile as influenced by the dynamics of the steering system, transactions of the ASME. SAE Paper 780010, Warrendale 1980, Zschocke A (2009) Ein Beitrag zur objektiven und subjektiven Evaluierung des Lenkkomforts von Kraftfahrzeugen. You signed in with another tab or window. In modern car design the effective cornering stiffness may be approximated as follows (see also Eq. Use Git or checkout with SVN using the web URL. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. When the effects of shifting the dynamic wheel load will be included, the single track model has to be extended into a Dual-track model.