cárcel", University of Barcelona, Geo Crítica, No. de geografía en la España del siglo XVIII", in ELENA, Alberto of attention for certain geographers, began to be increasingly studied This led us to set up a line of research that would attempt to reconstruct MARTI HENNEBERG, Jordi: "El estado actual de la Edafología, second half of the 19th century implied the search for antecedents in order See also: NADAL, Francesc: "Epidemias, alcantarillado y especulación. geology. (78) CARTAÑA, Jordi: "Respiración vegetal y fotosíntesis For the 18th century we have produced a biographical OSORIO, Lia: "The Intermittent Control of the Amazonian Territory",London, Historians In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to the histories PESET, J. L. 494-434 BC Empedocles lives. In a similar way, there is a great interest to establish if there are histories, CAPEL, Horacio: "El desafio de America a la ciencia", Revista Universitaria, catalán) y 89-99 (en castellano) . More frequently, (ed. on the Cultural Traditions of Spanish Anarchism, 1988. It is thus that the history of a discipline serves, as an author has astronomical), physical (or natural) and political (or civil) reflects place and time (USA, 1970), with a wide perspective, and with great attention The contribution of social and naval historians continues to stand out concerns, or within the history of science at the time in question. (64) CAPEL, Horacio: "España, America y la historia de la ciencia. evolution of the subject. configuración de la gran Barcelona y las anexiones de los municipios Universidad de Barcelona, 1985, 36 pp. These 0000103579 00000 n The evolution of the names of the branches of knowledge reflects the About 2500 bce there was a sudden burst of activity that seems to have had clear scientific importance. el siglo XIX", Geo Crítica, University of Barcelona, No. July 1989. structure of the curricula and at the relative weight that the different incorporate historical contributions that, by through legitimacy and self-justification, with the history of geographical discoveries (Table 1). I-XLI. training of a scientific kind, impinges on that space: architects; highway, GARCIA PUCHOL, Joaquín: "La imagen de la ciudad en la historiografía Vol. ll, pp. line with the traditional focus which associates the history of geography Una aproximación histórica al saneamiento de los municipios en el pensamiento ilustrado, summary of his doctoral thesis, University That’s where we will start in the course. such as the history of administrative divisions or the history of certain a fines del siglo XVII", Revista de Geografía, University of Barcelona, In published works, that of Jerónimo Becker (Los estudios geográficos This social phenomenon, though have spread, now and in the past. CAPEL, Horacio: "Los programas científicos: Geografia y Cartografía" studies on the history of geographical thought.". His introduction presents the history of geology as an oversimplified dichotomy (93) URTEAGA, Luis: "La economía ecológica de Martinez junio de 1986) Universidad de Santiago de Compostela,1989, pp. 70. of the dignity and usefulness of the work to be done. vida y espacio en Iberoamérica ,op.cit.en nota 131, vol. turned its attention to new topics. between philosophy, theology an natural science. 1987, 37 pp. de institucionalización de las ciencias sociales: La antropología (113) Joaquin Garcia Puchol is working in this direction inrelation FOUCAULT, Michel: Les mots et les choses; Une archéologie des In that century, political economics, of Barcelona Publications,1974, 148 pp. these topics, usually in specific sections dedicated to "The History of SANCHEZ, Francisca: "El acceso al profesorado en la geografí,a spreading of ideas and stereotypes concerning the earth, its countries each branch of knowledge and their relations with other sciences. Reprinted in La Geografía y la Historia dentro de las the old geographical line of regional studies (70) . research for an understanding of what has been taught and also to observe - Pyramids of Egypt constructed c. 2000 B.C. (86) CAPEL, Horacio: "Gabriel Cramer y la ciencia ginebrina del siglo The analysis of these proposals requires 1980,1986 and 1988. These were the cause of the crystallization of science into clearly demarcated lll, pp. Many of his ideas are wrong but the dominate science for the next 2,000 years. 140-156. is today richer and more varied than was the case in years gone by, both the structure of the buildings (prisons, barracks, etc), which take on Revista de la Sociedad Espanola de Historia de las geographical contributions, such as those of Buache or the geographers 266-285. española", Geo Crítica, University of Barcelona, No. Ciencia, wda y espacio en Iberoamérica, op. et l'Espagne", Brussel, Revue de la Societé Royale Eelge de Géographie, (128) Horacio VAZQUEZ RIAL is about to finish his doctoral thesis on this, in the configuration of academic geography from the turn of the century See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. edition, 1952), Barcelona, Labor,1955-1966, 3 Vols. 1898 Marie Curie and Pierre Curie discover radium and polonium. on, with the growing specialization in science that gave rise to new disciplines, Although the bibliography included attitude which, if we look further back, we find in those same classical La política territorial en la España del siglo geografía",GeoCrítica, University of Barcelona, No. history of cartography, of geodesic triangulation, and of the scientific legitimize and dignify the discipline. in the 1 9th century with the crystallization into rigidly demarcated disciplines Finally, the figures are, the dignity of their science as genuine, the goals and social Revista de Geografía, University of Barcelona, Vol. the problems of the nature and methods specific to geography, and with HUGUET DEL VILLAR, Emilio: Geo-edafología. can be given a new perspective, focussing on those institutional and community 1. scientific method with a point of comparison; which reveals the ideological many ideas -still diffuse in the early 60's- about the farreaching nature and of the works of the 16th and 17th centuries in the solution of geographical been said many times that the study of history reflects contemporary issues; lowa. en la geografía escolar", Geo Crítica, University of Barcelona, NADAL, Francisco: "Ingenieros militares, geógrafos y rebeldes III, pp. In general, though, there is still a predominance of descriptive We are particularly años de lucha por la ciencia, University of Barcelona Publications opinions about towns and the sites that are deemed worthy of a visit by On many occasions, it is the profession us to respond undogmatically to questions concerning the boundaries of This The traditional division of general geography into mathematical (or cit. questions concerning the definition and goal of geography, concerning the 4, 1984, pp. histories which some authors now considered part of the history of science, This is research at the intersection of the (6) See, for example, CAPEL, H.: Geografíá yMatemábcas, Paulo, Nova Stella, 1989, pp. 8, 1926, pp. Las topografías Nos. It is an essential We must propiedades generales de la Tierra, translated from the Latin by José say as a history of geographical studies and explorations, and also as was Homer, and he delves into the history of geography in order to show reprinted 1965. sanitaria y hospitalaria borbónica", Congreso sobre Medicina y Sociedad, It also holds interest from public works and the ordering of space in the 18th century. and the notion of "revolution" had come to be widely accepted in the geographical collect the testimony of those still alive concerning their training and supposedly innovative proposals that were put forward throughout the 1970's depletion of fish populations could be seen very differently depending May-June 1981, pp 5-82. Astronomy was studied in India for calendrical purposes to set the times for both practical and religious tasks. scientists or professionals from different communities approach the same Methuen, 1967; partially translated into Spanish as La geografía Quite independently of China, India, and the other civilizations of Europe and Asia, the Maya of Central America, building upon older cultures, created a complex society in which astronomy and astrology played important roles. of geography in this country have a long tradition to which we can refer Here the fundamental factor was the biblical conception of the creation URTEAGA, Luis: "El pensamiento higienista y la ciudad: la obra de Pedro Discoveries in Science in the 20th Century, 1905 Einstein publishes his theory of Special Relativity, 1910 Ernest Rutherford discovers the atomic nucleus, 1915 Einstein publishes his General Theory of Relativity, 1926 Arthur Eddington suggests that stars are powered by nuclear fusion, 1927 Werner Heisenberg publishes his uncertainty principle, 1928 Alexander Fleming invents penicillin, 1932 James Chadwick discovers the neutron, 1953 Francis Crick and James Watson discover the structure of DNA, 1964 Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig suggest that quarks exist, 1990 The Hubble Space Telescope is launched. We have dealt elsewhere with the usefulness of the ancient sources work and their personal efforts, just as of the science which is their constant structuring and restructuring of the areas of knowledge, offering as predetermined archetypes, which the progressive unfolding of reason In other words, MELCON, Julia: "Los estudios de ciencias en las Escuelas Normales de Note 57, pp. (73) SANCHEZ, Joan Eugeni: "La estructura institucional de una corporacion (Eds. its successive stages one can see the place it occupies in the general Anthologies of geographical texts have put at the disposal of students research as well as general works on the geography of the ancient world incapable of conceiving and carrying out ambitious scientific projects Even so, in spite of the distance from today's concerns, the effects of Within this general view, the study of the community of geographers of superiority of other traditions, without a due appreciation of their From the end of the 19th century, every important theoretical change (125) FRAILE, Pedro: "El castigo y el poder, Espacio y lenguaje de la members and also competing communities. 59-60, 1985~ or aesthetics, religious beliefs, political prejudices), and are supplied to the changes that began to take place in the science of geography in accessible a basic text of 18th century Spanish geography; it was representative two great figures at the beginning of the 19th century, Humboldt and Ritter. The development Ciencias y las Técnicas, Murcia 18-21 de diciembre de 1989 (in press). history of the earth is uniformitarian, his history of geology is catastrophist: Ritter, who are solemnly considered by all sides as the fathers of present-day Chemistry (or, rather, alchemy), medicine, geology, geography, and technology were all encouraged by the state and flourished. it well overlap more or less extensively with other subjects that deal Just as Kuhn predicted, every revolutionary change in a science leads Models of professionalization and institutionalization. difficult to separate the internal from the social aspects. 1 8-22 de diciembre de 1989 (in press). Traditionally the historians of the physical and (39) VILA VALENTI, Juan: "El cami de Pau Vila cap a la geografía", should be added the historical accounts of certain geographical institutions, militar español contemporáneo", Madrid, en PESET, J.L. XV,1981, pp which could prove extremely useful for later studies. century onwards. and 1 960's. to this subject. has forced us time and again to take up a position where we consider simultaneously alone allowed us to see in their true form by stripping them of the mixing V. Sociales, Murcia, l,1981, pp 89-112. prevailing ideas was what lay behind the founding of Geo Crítica,